If you are going to route traffic across your network, you need to ensure that you do not have a firewall blocking traffic on the specified network paths. Commonly firewalls are installed at egress points, where your local network connects to the internet. You may also run a firewall on the server itself. This is not always the case in some corporate environments. If you are not responsible for your network, you may wish to contact the group or individuals who are responsible for it.
Information they may need to enable traffic would include the port numbers. Various protocols use different ports for different things. Some you need bi-directional connectivity, some you only need outbound. Depending on your call scenario you may only need to allow connections that are initiated by your system. If you have any problems with protocols not working, it is recommended that you disable your firewall to the FreeSWITCH™ system, place a test call, and see if the problem persists. A misconfigured firewall is responsible for many common problems.
|FireWall Ports||Network Protocol||Application Protocol||Description|
|1719||UDP||H.323 Gatekeeper RAS port|
|1720||TCP||H.323 Call Signaling|
|3478||UDP||STUN service||Used for NAT traversal|
|3479||UDP||STUN service||Used for NAT traversal|
|5002||TCP||MLP protocol server|
|5060||UDP & TCP||SIP UAS||Used for SIP signaling (Standard SIP Port, for default Internal Profile)|
|5070||UDP & TCP||SIP UAS||Used for SIP signaling (For default "NAT" Profile)|
|5080||UDP & TCP||SIP UAS||Used for SIP signaling (For default "External" Profile)|
|8021||TCP||ESL||Used for mod_event_socket *|
|16384-32768||UDP||RTP/ RTCP multimedia streaming||Used for audio/video data in SIP and other protocols|
|5066||TCP||Websocket||Used for WebRTC|
|7443||TCP||Websocket||Used for WebRTC|
Note that the ports may vary depending on which modules you have loaded and their configuration, for instance you may have more or fewer SIP profiles, and you may have changed many of the above ports including SIP,RTP,ESL etc.
Linux netfilter iptables
The nf_conntrack_sip and nf_conntrack_h323 modules will watch unencrypted SIP/H323 and automatically open the firewall ports required for RTP if you are accepting packets with the RELATED state. SIP and H323 packets after the first packet will be in the ESTABLISHED state. If you allow any RELATED,ESTABLISHED packets before processing new/unknown packets, then your firewall will accept subsequent packets much sooner, resulting in lower CPU usage and latency.
This may only apply to packets on the standard ports (UDP/5060, TCP/5060, TCP/1720) as it requires that the firewall recognizes the SIP/H323 protocol the packets are using.
This is of course not possible for encrypted connections, as the firewall cannot look inside the VoIP packets to get the RTP IPs and ports. With the imperative of encrypted communications, these steps are necessary to allow traffic through the firewall.
You may need to adjust the following options in some configurations, e.g. setting sip_direct_media=0 for bypass media (either done by FreeSWITCH's bypass_media or by a gateway).
|nf_conntrack_sip||sip_direct_signalling||Expect incoming calls from registrar only*||0/1||1|
|nf_conntrack_sip||sip_direct_media||Expect Media streams between signalling endpoints only||0/1||1|
|nf_conntrack_sip||sip_timeout||Timeout for the master SIP session||Integer||3600|
|nf_conntrack_sip||ports||Port numbers of SIP servers*||List of up to 8 port numbers (comma-separated) eg. 5060,5070,5080||5060|
|nf_conntrack_h323||default_rrq_ttl||Use this TTL if it's missing in RRQ||Integer||300|
|nf_conntrack_h323||gkrouted_only||Only accept calls from gatekeeper||Integer||1|
|nf_conntrack_h323||callforward_filter||Only create call forwarding expectations if both endpoints are on different sides (determined by routing information)||Integer||1|
Module options are given when loading the module, e.g. "modprobe nf_conntrack_sip ports=5060,5080" to use a non-default setting. Modules will need to be unloaded and reloaded to change their options.
The two most commonly used options are "ports" and "sip_direct_media".
You can check the current module parameter values by viewing the special files in /sys/module/nf_conntrack_sip/parameters/
If your distribution supports /etc/modules.conf:
If your distribution supports /etc/modprobe.d/:
If your module is loaded using modprobe (eg. in rc.local):
sip_direct_signalling=1 and gkrouted_only=1 will still allow all incoming calls if you have a rule such as "-p udp --dport 5060 -j ACCEPT" for the protocol, since you are explicitly allowing signaling instead of relying on the module.
Default values are taken from linux-source-2.6.26 on Debian 2010/02/26, and may vary in later versions.
Invalid SIP packets may be silently dropped by iptables even if all packets are allowed (e.g. if they have no CSeq header). This should not be an issue for FreeSWITCH, since it only sends valid SIP packets.
This is a basic firewall setup using just IPTABLES on Debian Squeeze.
Back up your current iptables rules
iptables-save > ~/iptables.up.rules.vanilla
Create new rules
Turn on the rules
iptables-restore < ~/iptables.fs.rules
The rules are now turned on. Test and make changes to your firewall as necessary.
Save the final rules
Once you are happy with your rules, save them.
iptables-save > /etc/iptables.up.rules
Load rules on boot