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About

mod_perl is supported as of RC4.

Keep in mind that if you just want to execute perl scripts (or talk to FreeSWITCH using sockets through perl) you do not need mod_perl. Generally the only time you will need mod_perl support is if you want to interact with a live session from a script executed by FreeSWITCH (see examples below). For more details on using Perl without mod_perl see the Perl page.

 Click to expand Table of Contents

Installing

First beware that for mod_perl support you must have perl compiled with threads/multiplicity (generally once you compile for threads this is enabled). If you are not sure if you have perl compiled with multiplicity (the FreeSWITCH install will _not_ check this for you) or if you are looking for tips on recompiling perl with this support please see the section on the perl multiplicity requirement at the end of this page.

Once you have multiplicity support working you can continue:

  • Uncomment the mod_perl line in modules.conf in the build root of FreeSWITCH
  • (re)compile freeswitch
  • issue "make mod_perl-install" from the shell
  • Uncomment the mod_perl load line in modules.conf.xml
  • Mod perl will now load and work correctly

On RHEL / CentOS, gdbm-devel and db4-devel packages must be installed.

Issue with SUSE Linux

FreeSWITCH will compile mod_perl on Suse 10.3, 11.0, and 11.1 however it appears that it will coredump. I resolved this by recompiling perl 5, (and upgrading to 5.10.0 in the process) which seems to have gotten this bug resolved. If you're not sufficiently skilled to re-compile perl yourself, contact your Distribution vendor and ask them to stop fixing things that aren't broken.

I have not tried FreeSWITCH on earlier Suse distributions, your mileage may vary...

Perl Multiplicity Requirement

As FreeSWITCH is multithreaded it requires mod_perl to be multithreaded this can be a bit of a task to get working if it is not already compiled with this support.

While there is a check in the makefile for this it doesn't actually execute currently so it is best to verify this yourself. At a command line run:

perl -V | grep -oP "usemultiplicity=[a-z]+"

you should get back something like: usemultiplicity=define however if you get back usemultiplicity=undef you are in bad shape. If this happens to you you will need to recompile perl to make mod_perl for FreeSWITCH load correctly. Keep in mind that in addition to recompiling some (many) of your perl modules may need to be reinstalled to work correctly along with some apps that may require in with perl/libperl. You should test this on a non-production system before trying to convert a production system.

For gentoo do the following:

Add ithreads to the perl and libperl use flags
recompile perl and libperl
perl-cleaner reallyall

That should help to ensure everything that could be effected is recompiled but it may not get everything (specifically manually compiled apps or cpan installed modules).

A script to help ensure all modules are reinstalled for your new version of perl can be found at: http://mitchcapper.com/missing_modules.pl.txt

Usage

Dialplan application

Once you have enabled mod_perl in the modules config, you are ready to start using it. If you want to call it as part of a dial plan you just have to call your script using:

<action application="perl" data="/path/to/your/script.pl"/>

You can pass arguments to the script by just placing them at the end of the data string (separated by spaces).

The script receives $session variable which represents the session object.

mod_perl will automatically import the freeswitch Perl module, but nothing is imported into the global namespace. This means if you want to access a non-instance function from the class, say consoleLog,  it is freeswitch::consoleLog.

Your script should always end with a line of '1;', or if you are returning out of the script make sure you use 'return 1' not just 'return'.

Keep in mind that your Perl script gets full control of the session, and nothing is happening to the session if the script is waiting for something. You cannot, for example, play music to the session and perform some bulky lookups in external databases.

Example:

mod_perl dialplan script example
use strict;
use warnings;
our $session;
freeswitch::consoleLog('INFO',"Example script started\n");
$session->setVariable('business_hour', 'true');
1;

Inline execution

<action application="set" data="foo=${perl(/path/to/your/script.pl)}"/>

In case of inline execution, in addition to $session variable as described above, the script receives a predefined $stream variable which allows you to write the output:

$stream->write("hello world");

Also the variable $env represents an event object.

XML dialplan generation

If you want to use mod_perl to call a perl script to generate XML for a dialplan however you want to do a few additional things:

The file conf/autoload_configs/perl.conf.xml is used in the default FreeSWITCH™ setup.

Here is a minimum configuration file, it will fetch a dialplan from perl script:

 

conf/autoload_configs/perl.conf.xml
<configuration name="perl.conf" description="PERL Configuration">
  <settings>
    <param name="xml-handler-script" value="/tmp/xml.pl"/>
    <param name="xml-handler-bindings" value="dialplan"/>

    <!--
	The following options identifies a perl script that is launched	
	at startup and may live forever in the background.
	You can define multiple lines, one for each script you 
	need to run.
    -->
    <!--param name="startup-script" value="startup_script_1.pl"/-->
    <!--param name="startup-script" value="startup_script_2.pl"/-->

  </settings>
</configuration>

The startup-script values represent perl scripts (located inside the scripts/ directory) that are launched when FreeSWITCH is started. The scripts live in their own thread. You can use them to run simple tasks (and then let them finish) or looping forever, watching (for example) for events, generating calls or whatever you like.

The xml-handler-bindings value can assume the following values:

  • configuration
  • dialplan
  • directory

See Mod xml curl for more informations. Mod_perl behaves the same identical way.

The handler script receives two hashes that are populated for you by freeswitch:

  •  %XML_REQUEST
  •  %XML_DATA

It also receives $params that is a wrapped switch event.

You should return a valid XML dialplan in the $XML_STRING variable before exiting your code.

See the following example to start experimenting. The code will dump all the data to the console:

mod_perl XML handler example
#!/usr/bin/perl

freeswitch::console_log("info", "Perl rocks\n");

while( ($name, $value) = each(%XML_REQUEST)) {
    freeswitch::console_log("info", '[XML_REQUEST] '."$name => $value\n");
}

# %XML_DATA is only present when perl is used as a binding
while( ($name, $value) = each(%XML_DATA)) {
    freeswitch::console_log("info", '[XML_DATA] '."$name => $value\n");
}

# even $params is full of data
my $xml_dump = $params->serialize();
freeswitch::console_log("info", "[PARAMS] $xml_dump\n");


$XML_STRING = '
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>
<document type="freeswitch/xml">
  <section name="dialplan" description="Perl RE Dial Plan For FreeSwitch">
    <context name="default">
      <extension name="test">
        <condition field="destination_number" expression="^991$">
          <action application="playback" data="tone_stream://path=${base_dir}/conf/tetris.ttml;loops=5"/>
        </condition>
      </extension>
    </context>
  </section>
</document>
';

Programming with mod_perl

Functions and classes

Useful commands that may help get a list of functions and classes from mod_perl source files:

grep -o -P "^(\*[^=]+|############# Class.+)" freeswitch.pm
grep -o -P 'Usage: ([^"]+)' mod_perl_wrap.cpp

Some tips for programming with mod_perl

Most instance functions have 'this' as the first parameter, you don't actually pass 'this', it is automatically passed when you call a function, for example:

$session->answer();

will pass $session as the this automatically.

It is important to know that the perl->c++ conversion is not always perfect. Passing functions is done by passing the function name as a string, rather than the standard dereferencing:

# GOOD
$session->setHangupHook( 'on_hangup' ); # BAD
$session->setHangupHook( \&on_hangup );

In addition a function that takes a string argument you should not pass it a number, so:

# GOOD
$session->execute("sleep","1500");
# BAD
$session->execute("sleep",1500);

Generally if you pass an invalid argument it will give you an error when you run it, with an error of "No matching function for overloaded".

Also, some differences exist in the function names. For example, where in JavaScript you might do:

var hangup_cause = session.cause

In Perl, you would do:

$hangup_cause = $session->hangupCause();

Finally functions can behave a little bit different than expected, for example consoleLog does not append a newline at the end of the log message automatically, and may not flush it to the console until a new line is printed.

Executing an API from within mod_perl

Sometimes you need to execute an API (like 'show channels' or 'fifo list') while processing in your script. You need to create an API object:

my $api = new freeswitch::API;

Then use the execute or executeString method and capture the return value:

my $res = $api->executeString("show channels");

Here's a very simple example that calls version and prints the value in the debug log.

# api_example.pl
#
my $api = new freeswitch::API;
my $res = $api->executeString("version");
chomp($res);
freeswitch::consoleLog("INFO","Version information is '$res'\n");
$session->hangup;
1; ## Always end with a TRUE value    

Hangup hook

FreeSWITCH's api_hangup_hook is a handy tool for post-processing on a call. While many use Lua for this (because it is lightweight and easy) there are valid reasons for using Perl. For example, Lua does not natively support directory operations (create file, delete file, etc.). Also, Perl has many CPAN modules that can be leveraged for post processing.

Setting a hook is simple:

<action application="set" data="api_hangup_hook=perl hook.pl"/>

The above hook will run perl hook.pl when the channel hangs up.

A sample hook.pl:

our $env;
open(FILEOUT,'>','/tmp/hookdata.txt');
print FILEOUT $env->serialize;
close(FILEOUT);

A dump of hookdata.txt will show you what is available. Note that this particular hook ran after a successful rxfax application:

'direction: outbound
is_outbound: true
uuid: 2cef485a-d020-11e0-a4e6-474e765f4808
write_codec: L16
write_rate: 8000
channel_name: loopback/9905-a
call_uuid: 2cef3cde-d020-11e0-a4e5-474e765f4808
origination_caller_id_number: 5594372600
originate_early_media: true
other_loopback_leg_uuid: 2cef485a-d020-11e0-a4e6-474e765f4808
loopback_leg: B
open: true
RFC2822_DATE: Fri,%2026%20Aug%202011%2013%3A15%3A43%20-0700
endpoint_disposition: ANSWER
playback_seconds: 2
playback_ms: 2000
playback_samples: 16000
api_hangup_hook: perl%20hook.pl
fax_v17_disabled: 0
fax_ecm_requested: 1
fax_filename: /tmp/fax-in-2cef485a-d020-11e0-a4e6-474e765f4808.tif
jitterbuffer_msec: 0
fax_success: 1
fax_result_code: 0
fax_result_text: OK
fax_ecm_used: on
fax_local_station_id: SpanDSP%20Fax%20Ident
fax_remote_station_id: SpanDSP%20Fax%20Ident
fax_document_transferred_pages: 1
fax_document_total_pages: 1
fax_image_resolution: 8031x3850
fax_image_size: 0
fax_bad_rows: 0
fax_transfer_rate: 14400
read_codec: L16
read_rate: 8000
current_application: hangup
hangup_cause: NORMAL_CLEARING
hangup_cause_q850: 16
digits_dialed: none
start_stamp: 2011-08-26%2013%3A15%3A43
profile_start_stamp: 2011-08-26%2013%3A15%3A43
answer_stamp: 2011-08-26%2013%3A15%3A43
end_stamp: 2011-08-26%2013%3A16%3A39
start_epoch: 1314389743
start_uepoch: 1314389743241198
profile_start_epoch: 1314389743
profile_start_uepoch: 1314389743241198
answer_epoch: 1314389743
answer_uepoch: 1314389743261208
bridge_epoch: 0
bridge_uepoch: 0
last_hold_epoch: 0
last_hold_uepoch: 0
hold_accum_seconds: 0
hold_accum_usec: 0
hold_accum_ms: 0
resurrect_epoch: 0
resurrect_uepoch: 0
progress_epoch: 0
progress_uepoch: 0
progress_media_epoch: 0
progress_media_uepoch: 0
end_epoch: 1314389799
end_uepoch: 1314389799501207
last_app: hangup
caller_id: 5594372600
duration: 56
billsec: 56
progresssec: 0
answersec: 0
waitsec: 0
progress_mediasec: 0
flow_billsec: 56
mduration: 56260
billmsec: 56240
progressmsec: 0
answermsec: 20
waitmsec: 0
progress_mediamsec: 0
flow_billmsec: 56260
uduration: 56260009
billusec: 56239999
progressusec: 0
answerusec: 20010
waitusec: 0
progress_mediausec: 0
flow_billusec: 56260009
Channel-State: CS_HANGUP
Channel-Call-State: HANGUP
Channel-State-Number: 10
Channel-Name: loopback/9905-b
Unique-ID: 2cef89e6-d020-11e0-a4e7-474e765f4808
Call-Direction: inbound
Presence-Call-Direction: inbound
Channel-Call-UUID: 2cef3cde-d020-11e0-a4e5-474e765f4808
Answer-State: hangup
Channel-Read-Codec-Name: L16
Channel-Read-Codec-Rate: 8000
Channel-Read-Codec-Bit-Rate: 128000
Channel-Write-Codec-Name: L16
Channel-Write-Codec-Rate: 8000
Channel-Write-Codec-Bit-Rate: 128000
Caller-Direction: inbound
Caller-Dialplan: xml
Caller-Caller-ID-Number: 5594372600
Caller-Callee-ID-Name: Outbound%20Call
Caller-Callee-ID-Number: 9905
Caller-Destination-Number: 9905
Caller-Unique-ID: 2cef89e6-d020-11e0-a4e7-474e765f4808
Caller-Source: mod_loopback
Caller-Context: default
Caller-Channel-Name: loopback/9905-b
Caller-Profile-Index: 1
Caller-Profile-Created-Time: 1314389743241198
Caller-Channel-Created-Time: 1314389743241198
Caller-Channel-Answered-Time: 1314389743261208
Caller-Channel-Progress-Time: 0
Caller-Channel-Progress-Media-Time: 0
Caller-Channel-Hangup-Time: 1314389799501207
Caller-Channel-Transfer-Time: 0
Caller-Screen-Bit: true
Caller-Privacy-Hide-Name: false
Caller-Privacy-Hide-Number: false
variable_direction: outbound
variable_is_outbound: true
variable_uuid: 2cef485a-d020-11e0-a4e6-474e765f4808
variable_write_codec: L16
variable_write_rate: 8000
variable_channel_name: loopback/9905-a
variable_call_uuid: 2cef3cde-d020-11e0-a4e5-474e765f4808
variable_origination_caller_id_number: 5597993757
variable_originate_early_media: true
variable_other_loopback_leg_uuid: 2cef485a-d020-11e0-a4e6-474e765f4808
variable_loopback_leg: B
variable_open: true
variable_RFC2822_DATE: Fri,%2026%20Aug%202011%2013%3A15%3A43%20-0700
variable_endpoint_disposition: ANSWER
variable_playback_seconds: 2
variable_playback_ms: 2000
variable_playback_samples: 16000
variable_api_hangup_hook: perl%20hook.pl
variable_fax_v17_disabled: 0
variable_fax_ecm_requested: 1
variable_fax_filename: /tmp/fax-in-2cef485a-d020-11e0-a4e6-474e765f4808.tif
variable_jitterbuffer_msec: 0
variable_fax_success: 1
variable_fax_result_code: 0
variable_fax_result_text: OK
variable_fax_ecm_used: on
variable_fax_local_station_id: SpanDSP%20Fax%20Ident
variable_fax_remote_station_id: SpanDSP%20Fax%20Ident
variable_fax_document_transferred_pages: 1
variable_fax_document_total_pages: 1
variable_fax_image_resolution: 8031x3850
variable_fax_image_size: 0
variable_fax_bad_rows: 0
variable_fax_transfer_rate: 14400
variable_read_codec: L16
variable_read_rate: 8000
variable_current_application: hangup
variable_hangup_cause: NORMAL_CLEARING
variable_hangup_cause_q850: 16
variable_digits_dialed: none
variable_start_stamp: 2011-08-26%2013%3A15%3A43
variable_profile_start_stamp: 2011-08-26%2013%3A15%3A43
variable_answer_stamp: 2011-08-26%2013%3A15%3A43
variable_end_stamp: 2011-08-26%2013%3A16%3A39
variable_start_epoch: 1314389743
variable_start_uepoch: 1314389743241198
variable_profile_start_epoch: 1314389743
variable_profile_start_uepoch: 1314389743241198
variable_answer_epoch: 1314389743
variable_answer_uepoch: 1314389743261208
variable_bridge_epoch: 0
variable_bridge_uepoch: 0
variable_last_hold_epoch: 0
variable_last_hold_uepoch: 0
variable_hold_accum_seconds: 0
variable_hold_accum_usec: 0
variable_hold_accum_ms: 0
variable_resurrect_epoch: 0
variable_resurrect_uepoch: 0
variable_progress_epoch: 0
variable_progress_uepoch: 0
variable_progress_media_epoch: 0
variable_progress_media_uepoch: 0
variable_end_epoch: 1314389799
variable_end_uepoch: 1314389799501207
variable_last_app: hangup
variable_caller_id: 5594372600
variable_duration: 56
variable_billsec: 56
variable_progresssec: 0
variable_answersec: 0
variable_waitsec: 0
variable_progress_mediasec: 0
variable_flow_billsec: 56
variable_mduration: 56260
variable_billmsec: 56240
variable_progressmsec: 0
variable_answermsec: 20
variable_waitmsec: 0
variable_progress_mediamsec: 0
variable_flow_billmsec: 56260
variable_uduration: 56260009
variable_billusec: 56239999
variable_progressusec: 0
variable_answerusec: 20010
variable_waitusec: 0
variable_progress_mediausec: 0
variable_flow_billusec: 56260009
API-Command: perl
API-Command-Argument: hook.pl
'
 

Individual items can be accessed using the getHeader method:

print FILEOUT "UUID: " . $env->getHeader('uuid') . "\n";
print FILEOUT "Caller: " . $env->getHeader('caller_id') . "\n";
print FILEOUT "Fax result: " $env->getHeader('fax_result_text') . "\n";
print FILEOUT "Fax pages: " . $env->getHeader('fax_document_transferred_pages') . "\n";

Once you have the values you need you simply build a perl script and do whatever you wish to do.

The following is an example of dialplan extension that executes a Perl script after a fax is received:

  <extension name="fax in">
    <condition field="destination_number" expression="^9905$">
      <action application="answer"/>
      <action application="playback" data="silence_stream://2000"/>
      <action application="set" data="api_hangup_hook=perl hook.pl"/>
      <action application="set" data="fax_file=/tmp/fax-in-${uuid}.tif"/>
      <action application="rxfax" data="${fax_file}"/>
      <action application="info"/>
      <action application="log" data="INFO Fax recd!!"/>
      <action application="hangup"/>
    </condition>
  </extension>


See Also

Examples